review Shively, MJ., Gardetto, N.J., Kodiath, M.F., Kelly, A., Smith, T.L., Stepnowsky, C., Maynard, C., & Larson, B.L. (2013). Effect of patient activation on self-management in patients with heart failure. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 28(1), 20-34.
For your initial post, you will review the assigned study and answer the following questions:
Give an overview of the study and then answer the following additional questions.
- What is the study type?
- What threats to internal and external validity were noted? Are there others you think might be present that the author(s) didn’t describe?
- How did the researchers ensure that ethical research standards were followed
Expert Solution Preview
The study by Shively et al. (2013) focused on examining the impact of patient activation on self-management in patients suffering from heart failure. The purpose of this study was to explore how patient activation can improve self-management behavior, leading to better overall health outcomes.
1. What is the study type?
The study by Shively et al. (2013) is a randomized control trial (RCT). This means that the researchers randomly assigned participants to either an intervention group or a control group and measured the impact of patient activation on self-management behaviors.
2. What threats to internal and external validity were noted? Are there others you think might be present that the author(s) didn’t describe?
The authors noted several threats to internal validity, including the Hawthorne effect, testing effect, and treatment diffusion. The Hawthorne effect refers to participants changing their behavior because they know they are being observed. The testing effect refers to participants being more familiar with the testing procedure in later assessments, which may affect results. Treatment diffusion refers to control group participants being influenced by the intervention through contact with intervention group participants.
The authors also noted several threats to external validity, including sample selection bias and low generalizability due to the study being conducted at a single institution.
One potential threat to internal validity is the placebo effect, where participants may experience benefits simply because they believe they are receiving treatment. Another potential threat to external validity is the lack of diversity in the study population, as the majority of participants were white and male, which may limit generalizability to other populations.
3. How did the researchers ensure that ethical research standards were followed?
The researchers ensured that ethical research standards were followed by obtaining informed consent from all participants and protecting their privacy and confidentiality. The study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) and conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The authors also noted that all data were collected and stored securely to protect the participants’ privacy.
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